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According to the Bible, Noah took samples of all animals alive at the time of the Flood. For thousands of plant species (perhaps even most plants), there is at least one animal that eats only that one kind of plant. Aside from losing its atmosphere, Earth can only get rid of heat by radiating it to space, and it can't radiate significantly more heat than it gets from the sun unless it is a great deal hotter than it is now.

If, as creationists claim, all fossil-bearing strata were deposited by the Flood, then all the animals which became fossils were alive then. How did Noah gather all those plants aboard, and where did he put them? (It is very nearly at thermal equilibrium now.) If there weren't many millions of years to radiate the heat from the above processes, the earth would still be unlivably hot.

Therefore all extinct land animals had representatives aboard the ark. Other animals are strict carnivores, and some of those specialize on certain kinds of foods, such as small mammals, insects, fish, or aquatic invertebrates. Many snakes, for example, will eat only live foods (or at least warm and moving). Most spiders locate their prey by the vibrations it produces. As shown in section 5, all the mechanisms proposed for causing the Flood already provide more than enough energy to vaporize it as well.

The creationists who propose all the species living together in a uniform climate are effectively proposing the destruction of all environments but one. To determine how much space is required for animals, we must first determine what is a kind, how many kinds were aboard the ark, and how big they were. Creationists themselves can't decide on an answer to this question; they propose criteria ranging from species to order, and I have even seen an entire kingdom (bacteria) suggested as a single kind. Woodmorappe and Whitcomb & Morris arbitrarily exclude all animals except mammals, birds, and reptiles. Many animals, especially insects, require special diets. Some of these events release significant amounts of heat. Since steam and air have a lower heat capacity than water, the steam released will quickly raise the temperature of the atmosphere over 1000 C.

Most extinctions are caused by destroying the organisms' preferred environments. Getting all the animals aboard the Ark presents logistical problems which, while not impossible, are highly impractical. Since there were likely more animals to load, the time pressures would have been even worse. However, on the ark "kind" must have meant something closer to species for three reasons: What kinds were aboard the ark? One example, the Joggins section along the Bay of Fundy, shows a continuous section 2750 meters thick (along a 48-km sea cliff) with multiple in-place forests, some separated by hundreds of feet of strata, some even showing evidence of forest fires. For other examples, see Dawson, 1868; Cristie & Mc Millan, 1991; Gastaldo, 1990; Yuretich, 1994.] Creationists point to logs sinking in a lake below Mt. Helens as an example of how a flood can deposit vertical trunks, but deposition by flood fails to explain the roots, the soil, the layering, and other features found in such places. If the geologic record was deposited in a year, then the events it records must also have occurred within a year.

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